• Prevention of fire and spread of fire and smoke
  • Facilitation of effective fire-fighting operations in case of fire
  • Protection of the health and lives of users and rescuers through adequately protected escape routes
  • Protection of building substance, inventory and operational capability
  • Environmental protection against toxic combustion and reaction gases

Various factors must be taken into account to achieve these goals. In addition to the utilisation concept and the work and operating procedures for the building (e.g. the number of users), this also includes the building geometry. The planning of the fire-fighting operations also includes the consideration of the limit distances to neighbouring buildings, the connection to public traffic routes and the area where the fire brigade can set up their equipment and will need to move around in.


An essential part of planning is the assessment of the fire hazard. This includes testing the risk of ignition and the fire load due to flammable materials. The reaction to fire of building materials and components is regulated by DIN 4102. Components are marked by the fire resistance class and the fire resistance duration in minutes. The fire resistance class can be determined on the basis of DIN 18230, by suitable simulation calculations or by fire tests